Balancer mechanics - Factorio Wiki (2024)

Balancers are used to evenly distribute items over multiple belts or multiple belt lanes.

Balancers that are input balanced take evenly from all input belts/belt lanes. Balancers that are output balanced distribute evenly to all output belts/belt lanes. Ideally, a balancer should be input and output balanced.


  • 1 Belt balancers
    • 1.1 Throughput
    • 1.2 Universal balancers
  • 2 Lane balancers
  • 3 See also
  • 4 Further reading

Belt balancers

1 full input belt gets split into two 50% full belts which get split into 4 belts that are each 25% full.

Belt balancers utilize the mechanic that splitters output items in a 1:1 ratio onto both their output belts. That means that a splitter can be used to put an equal amount of items on two belts. Since the process can be repeated infinitely, balancers with 2n output belts are easy to create.

First the belts A and B go through a splitter so that the output belts contain an equal amount of items from each input belt (AB). The same is done with belts C and D. Then the mixed belts AB and CD go through splitters so that their output belts contain items from each input belt (ABCD)!

Balancers also use the mechanic that splitters take an equal amount of items from both input belts. That means that a splitter connected to two input belts will evenly distribute those items onto the the two output belts. To balance belts it has to be made sure that the output belts contain an equal number of items from each input belt.


Balancers that are throughput limited may not be able to provide maximum output if one or more outputs are blocked. To be throughput unlimited, a balancer must fulfil the following conditions:

  1. 100% throughput under full load.
  2. Any arbitrary amount of input belts should be able to go to any arbitrary amount of output belts.

Balancers often do not fulfill the second condition because of internal bottlenecks. The gif on the right shows a 4 → 4 balancer being fed by two belts, but only outputting one belt which means that its throughput in that arrangement is 50%. The bottleneck in this balancer is that the two middle belts only get input from one splitter. So, if only one side of that splitter gets input, as can be seen in the gif, it can only output one belt even though the side of the splitter is fed by a splitters which gets two full belts of input. In this particular case, the bottleneck can be fixed by feeding the two middle output belts with more splitters. This is done by adding two more splitters at the end of the balancer, as it can be seen here:

However most balancers' bottlenecks can't be solved as easily. A guaranteed method to achieve throughput unlimited balancers is to place two balancers back to back that fulfil the first condition for throughput unlimited balancers (100% throughput under full load). The resulting balancer is usually larger than a balancer that was initially designed to be throughput unlimited. This is the case because they use more splitters than the minimum required amount of splitters for a throughput unlimited balancer. For n → n balancers where n is a power of two numbers, n×log2(n)−n÷2 can be used to calculate how many splitters are needed. This formula is based on the number of nodes in a Beneš network, which is essentially the same as a throughput unlimited balancer — it allows any input to reach any output.

Universal balancers

Many balancers fail to balance properly once an output backs up or if an output is not used. In essence this means that an n-n balancer is not a functional n-(n-1) balancer. Sometimes this can be fixed by looping the unused output back around the balancer and distributing it among the inputs. Other times, this is not an option. Universal balancers solve this issue by having the back-looping built in. These balancers can balance evenly between any inputs and any outputs. Universal balancers can be throughput limited. If a universal balancer is throughput limited, the bottleneck may be in the loops or the balancer itself. A throughput limited universal balancer may only have the capacity for a few unused outputs. When more than the number of allowed outputs backs up, the universal balancer behaves like a normal balancer, and may not balance properly.

Lane balancers

This output balanced lane balancer distributes the items evenly among the output lanes, achieving output balance.

Lane balancers may be output balanced or input balanced. Input balanced lane balancers draw evenly from each side of the input belt, while output balanced lane balancers output evenly onto each lane of the output belt.

See also

  • Belt transport system
    • Splitters
    • Transport belts
    • Underground belts

Further reading

  • Command line belt balancer analyzer
  • Fractal (2n) balancer generation tool
  • Belt Balancers - how they work and how to make them
  • Finding balance: A guide to belt balancers

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Balancer mechanics - Factorio Wiki (2024)


What is the point of balancers in Factorio? ›

Balancers are used to evenly distribute items over multiple belts or multiple belt lanes. Balancers that are input balanced take evenly from all input belts/belt lanes.

What is the difference between belt balancer and lane balancer Factorio? ›

If you have two belts and the flow on one is larger than the other then you need a belt balancer, basically just a splitter if you have only two belts, but there are more complex balancers for 4 belts. If the flow on one of the two lanes on a belt is larger than the other then you need a lane balancer.

How do belt balancers work? ›

A belt balancer is a set of buildings that makes multiple balanced (averaged) output belts from unbalanced inputs. If the balancer has number N of input ports and M of output ports, it is called as “N:M balancer”. For example, splitter can be described as "a 1:3 balancer".

How do you balance belts in satisfactory? ›

Build a line of machines, one long belt, and branch it into the machines. The balancing will happen naturally as the buffers fill. Balancing works basically the same way as in Factorio, however due to the different operation of splitters and mergers the setup is quite unwieldy.

What is the end goal of Factorio? ›

The game is formally "won" by launching a rocket. Constructing a rocket requires a massive amount of resources, motivating the player to set up a sizeable, effective factory in order to achieve this goal.

What are balancers used for? ›

Balancers are commonly used for tool manipulation versus product handling. Tools such as heavier drills can cause operator fatigue after a long day of use. A balancer removes the lifting of the tool away from the operator and allows them to focus on the task versus handling the tool.

Why use trains instead of belts Factorio? ›

Past a couple screens of distance trains are both cheaper, faster and raising the throughput requires only a fraction of the setup cost unlike pipes or belts that need brand new lines every time. A yellow belt only transports 15 items per second, at a speed of 1.875 tiles per second.

How many assemblers does it take to fill a belt Factorio? ›

Ergo, circuit production speed is 0.5 [s/item] / 0.75 [1/assembler] ≈ 0.667 [assembler s/item]. Now, if it was 1 [s/item], we'd need 15 assemblers to fill a belt. If it was 2 [s/item], we'd need twice as many assemblers. If it was 0.5 [s/item], we'd need half as many assemblers.

How many miners fill a belt Factorio? ›

Second, miners (in vanilla) put out one item every 2 seconds. This sets a mathematical limit on how many active mines a belt can handle : 30 mines on a yellow belt, 15/side; 60 mines on a red belt, 30/side, and 90 mines on a blue belt, 45/side.

What is the ratio of the splitter in Factorio? ›

It splits all oncoming items in a ratio of 1:1 onto both of the belts. The Splitter can be used to even out belt items onto both sides by placing a Splitter onto a belt track with items only coming down the one side and then placing a belt to aim half of the items onto the empty side of the belt.

What is the purpose of the balancer belt? ›

The BalanceBelt is a Class 1 Medical Device wearable that uses haptic feedback to help patients suffering from severe balance disorders find their balance and regain their independence.

How does a spin balancer work? ›

A computer wheel balancer spins the wheel and determines the locations and amounts of vibration. The computer splits the tire into two halves and measures both lateral and radial forces on each side of the tire's center. Weights are added to each side of the wheel to correct the imbalance.

How do you separate belts in Factorio? ›

In Factorio, you can split a belt using filter inserters. The throughput of filter inserters is slower than that of conventional inserters, and they may not function properly in the event of power fluctuations. They also decompress the belt, which may alter how the things flow.

How do splitters work in satisfactory? ›

Splitters will only split across the number of outputs you use. So you can divide the input into two halves, or three thirds. This is a useful characteristic to apply efficient early game set-ups, e.g. smelting ores, which are predominantly simple ratios of one to two, one to four or one to eight.

What are splitters for Factorio? ›

Splitters. Splitters are another form of item manipulation. Splitters are a 2×1 entity that splits incoming items on belts from up to two input to up to two outputs, in a 1:1 ratio.

What is a tu balancer factorio? ›

Description. Throughput-unlimited (TU) balancers always provide full throughput. Regular balancers are only guaranteed to provide full throughput when all inputs or all outputs are utilized.

What is the point in Factorio? ›

Factorio is a game about building and creating automated factories to produce items of increasing complexity, within an infinite 2D world. Use your imagination to design your factory, combine simple elements into ingenious structures, and finally protect it from the creatures who don't really like you.

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